The End of Development? Why international development must adapt or fail

Panel | Change At the Grassroots

Panel 1 — Finan­cial Ser­vices to the Poor: Meet­ing New Challenges


An esti­mated 78 per­cent of the world’s poor­est do not have a bank account and oper­ate within the cash econ­omy. As the devel­op­ment world gears itself to pro­vide finan­cial ser­vices to this group, the cur­rent tools and mech­a­nisms have to be adapted as well. Where micro­fi­nance once meant the pro­vi­sion of small scale loans, its mean­ing has now evolved to include sav­ings, insur­ance, and other forms of finan­cial ser­vices. This panel will explore these new finan­cial ser­vices in a mul­ti­di­men­sional way; by ascer­tain­ing the needs of the finan­cially excluded, dis­cussing new prod­ucts and ser­vices, and deter­min­ing the effec­tive­ness of these ser­vices through empir­i­cal evidence.

Danielle Piskadlo | Moderator

As part of the Invest­ing in Inclu­sive Finance team, Danielle Piskadlo coor­di­nates the Coun­cil of Micro­fi­nance Equity Funds, work­ing closely with mem­bers and other indus­try play­ers on research and ini­tia­tives to advance equity financ­ing of MFIs. She is also active in sup­port­ing all projects under Invest­ing in Inclu­sive Finance.

Prior to join­ing the Cen­ter, Danielle worked part-time with Accion Invest­ments while purs­ing mas­ter degrees in inter­na­tional busi­ness at the Fletcher School and pub­lic admin­is­tra­tion at the Har­vard Kennedy School.

Before com­ing to Boston, Danielle worked in Bei­jing at Wokai, a non­profit micro­fi­nance start-up grow­ing the micro­fi­nance sec­tor in China, and also spent time in Hyder­abad, India work­ing for Intel­le­cap, a lead­ing micro­fi­nance con­sul­tancy. She began her career as a finan­cial ana­lyst in San Diego.

Ms. Piskadlo has a BS in busi­ness admin­is­tra­tion from the Uni­ver­sity of Vermont.

Jan­ina Matuszeski | Panelist

Jan­ina joined Oxfam in Sep­tem­ber 2008 and cur­rently over­sees the oper­a­tional and impact research for the Sav­ing for Change pro­gram in Mali, Cam­bo­dia, El Sal­vador, Guatemala and Sene­gal. Born and raised in Wash­ing­ton DC, she has an under­grad­u­ate degree in physics and chem­istry, and a PhD in eco­nom­ics from Har­vard Uni­ver­sity. She also spent two years as a Peace Corps Vol­un­teer in Mali and a year at ideas42, a micro­fi­nance research cen­ter at Har­vard, where she over­saw ran­dom­ized con­trolled tri­als of small busi­ness devel­op­ment projects in India.

Jef­frey Ashe | Panelist

Jeff Ashe designed and lead Sav­ing for Change at Oxfam Amer­ica which has grown to 600,000 Sav­ings Group mem­bers in Mali, Sene­gal, Cam­bo­dia, El Sal­vador and Guatemala. SfC is designed based on research he car­ried out in Nepal, India and Zim­babwe. Jeff pre­vi­ously founded and led Work­ing Cap­i­tal which was for a time the largest micro­fi­nance insti­tu­tion in the USA and has con­sulted to micro­fi­nance projects in more than 30 coun­tries. While at Acción Inter­na­tional he directed the PISCES stud­ies, the first world­wide study of micro­fi­nance and through that study intro­duced group lend­ing to Acción in 1981 mark­ing the start of the ramp up of Acción’s work in this field. As a Peace Corps Vol­un­teer in the 1960s he devel­oped the Campesino Lead­er­ship Train­ing pro­gram where PCVs and lib­er­a­tion the­ol­ogy priests and nuns helped insure that those who tilled the land received their just share. He also teaches micro­fi­nance at Colum­bia and Bran­deis Universities.

Guy Stew­art | Panelist

Guy is Exec­u­tive Direc­tor of Micro­fi­nance Oppor­tu­ni­ties (MFO). He has exten­sive expe­ri­ence con­duct­ing con­sumer research related to eco­nomic behav­ior, includ­ing finan­cial ser­vice use, across the globe. His research has been pub­lished in books, peer reviewed jour­nals, work­ing papers, and blogs. His focus is to trans­late high qual­ity research into action­able insights for finan­cial ser­vice providers. Before becom­ing Exec­u­tive Direc­tor, Guy was a Senior Advi­sor to MFO and served as Prin­ci­pal Inves­ti­ga­tor on five Finan­cial Diaries stud­ies and as project leader for the devel­op­ment of the Finan­cial Capa­bil­i­ties Index Web Por­tal (

Guy is also a Fel­low at the Ash Cen­ter, Har­vard Uni­ver­sity, where he con­ducts research on dis­trib­uted ser­vice deliv­ery sys­tems. He received his PhD from the Uni­ver­sity of Chicago in 1994, and sub­se­quently worked for four years in Chicago in the field of com­mu­nity eco­nomic devel­op­ment. He then served 13 years as a Lec­turer in Pub­lic Pol­icy at the Har­vard Kennedy School where he taught courses in man­age­ment and microfinance.

Alberto Jimenez | Panelist

Mr. Jimenez is the Direc­tor of Global Mobile Solu­tions in Cit­i­group. He has over 13 years of expe­ri­ence in pay­ments strat­egy and busi­ness devel­op­ment work, both as a man­age­ment con­sul­tant and as a bank­ing exec­u­tive.

Cur­rently Mr. Jimenez leads the Mobile Wal­lets ini­tia­tives of Citi Trans­ac­tion Ser­vices. He is presently involved in mul­ti­ple deploy­ments across geo­gra­phies in con­junc­tion with tel­cos, gov­ern­ments and other Citi part­ners. Prior to Citi, Mr. Jimenez held var­i­ous lead­er­ship posi­tions in Mobile Finan­cial Ser­vices for IBM; most recently, he was Global Leader for Mobile Pay­ments with an end-to-end respon­si­bil­ity for IBM ini­tia­tives in the space. Before IBM, he did equity research and busi­ness devel­op­ment work for Pru­den­tial Securities.

Panel 2 — Har­ness­ing Youth Energy for Development


Devel­op­ing coun­tries and coun­tries in cri­sis (like Spain or Greece today), have often 40 to 60% of youth unem­ploy­ment. Some young peo­ple drop school early, and even uni­ver­sity grad­u­ates can take up to 5 or 6 years to find their first job. This is a human­i­tar­ian dis­as­ter, and can induce insta­bil­ity and vio­lence in some coun­tries (demon­stra­tions, but also crim­i­nal­ity, or polit­i­cal insta­bil­ity). Yet, those youth are a tremen­dous asset for their coun­tries, if we man­age to give them oppor­tu­ni­ties to serve and prove their skills and will to con­tribute to the devel­op­ment of their communities.

Marie Trellu-Kane | Moderator

An ESSEC Busi­ness School grad­u­ate, Marie is the co-founding pres­i­dent of Unis-Cité, the lead­ing national youth ser­vice orga­ni­za­tion in France. From 24 Corps Mem­bers, 180K€ bud­get and 6 staff in 95, she led Unis-Cité to become a national orga­ni­za­tion, mobi­liz­ing 2000 full-time vol­un­teers every year in 50 cities, with a 14M€ bud­get and 200 staff, and inspired the French civil­ian youth ser­vice leg­is­la­tion to engage 30K youth this year. As a free lance con­sul­tant, she has worked with the United Nations on devel­op­ing national vol­un­teer pro­grams mostly in Africa, and with busi­nesses on how to develop their cor­po­rate social respon­si­bil­ity. At ESSEC Busi­ness School, as an expert for the Social Entre­pre­neur­ship Cen­ter, she has been teach­ing “the chal­lenges of social econ­omy”, “gov­er­nance in the non-profit sec­tors”, and “how to mea­sure social impact?”, and has launched a social incu­ba­tor and a ven­ture phil­an­thropic fund, to sup­port social entre­pre­neurs in the launch of their nascent social enter­prise. She is co-author of 2 books, “tomor­row, the civil­ian ser­vice” (Pier­son Edu­ca­tion, 2005) and “the social enter­prise (also) needs a busi­ness plan” (Rue de l’Echiquier, 2011). Among oth­ers, Marie is “cheval­ière” in the French “National Order of Merit”, mem­ber of the French Eco­nomic, Envi­ron­men­tal and Social Coun­cil, and Ashoka Senior Fel­low since 2010. She is now fol­low­ing the mid-career MPA at HKS, as an Arthur Sachs, Jean Gail­lard, and Har­vard Club of France fellow.

Tim Cross | Panelist

Mr. Cross is the found­ing Pres­i­dent of Youth­Build Inter­na­tional. There are now 61 Youth­Build pro­gram sites oper­at­ing in 13 coun­tries, enrolling over 7,000 young peo­ple. He joined Youth­Build USA in 1996 hold­ing sev­eral posi­tions includ­ing Vice Pres­i­dent of Field Ser­vices over see­ing the national domes­tic field oper­a­tion and then served as Youth­Build USA’s Chief Oper­at­ing Offi­cer for three years before launch­ing Youth­Build Inter­na­tional. For the last 25 years Mr. Cross has worked in the field of youth and com­mu­nity devel­op­ment, first as a line youth worker in com­mu­nity based orga­ni­za­tions, city wide youth devel­op­ment efforts, national and inter­na­tional ini­tia­tives. He was the Coun­try Coor­di­na­tor of the Civil Soci­ety Devel­op­ment pro­gram which cre­ated to two national sup­port orga­ni­za­tions pro­vid­ing a range of train­ing and tech­ni­cal assis­tance to the emerg­ing non profit sec­tors in Poland and Hun­gary. He has con­sulted to the Imag­i­ne­Na­tions Group, Inter­na­tional Youth Foun­da­tion, the World Bank and Open Soci­ety Insti­tute on inter­na­tional ini­tia­tives focused on youth engage­ment, train­ing and employ­ment. He directed the ROCA youth cen­ter in Chelsea, Mass­a­chu­setts, a com­pre­hen­sive youth devel­op­ment pro­gram and was exec­u­tive direc­tor of Youth As Resources in Boston. He was the lead orga­nizer of efforts that led to the found­ing of Youth­Build Boston, the first Youth­Build pro­gram to repli­cate out­side of East Harlem, New York. He has also worked as a foun­da­tion pro­gram offi­cer focused on refugee and immi­grant devel­op­ment efforts, and has con­sulted to sev­eral inter­na­tional grant mak­ing orga­ni­za­tions seek­ing to build the capac­ity of youth work­ers. He holds a Mas­ters Degree in Edu­ca­tion from Har­vard University.

Jen­nifer Hartzell | Panelist

Jen­nifer is the Uni­ver­sity Part­ner­ships Coor­di­na­tor at Ashoka’s Youth Ven­ture, split­ting her time between over­see­ing fel­low­ship oppor­tu­ni­ties for uni­ver­sity ven­tur­ers and work­ing with uni­ver­si­ties ded­i­cated to pro­vid­ing stu­dents with change­maker skills and expe­ri­ences. Before join­ing YV, Jen­nifer worked with female wards of the state in Chicago, Illi­nois on their tran­si­tion to inde­pen­dence. Before that she worked with high school stu­dents for an after school STEM edu­ca­tion pro­gram, lever­ag­ing her posi­tion to trans­form the cur­ricu­lum into one seen through the lens of social respon­si­bil­ity such that stu­dents could see a clear and com­pelling link between their inter­est in STEM dis­ci­plines and pos­i­tive social change. Jen­nifer received a BA from Yale Uni­ver­sity in Anthro­pol­ogy, focus­ing on gen­der roles and rela­tions within inter­na­tional devel­op­ment efforts. She is cur­rently pur­su­ing an M.A. in Social Enter­prise at Amer­i­can Uni­ver­sity with a par­tic­u­lar focus on edu­ca­tion and will grad­u­ate in May 2013.

Mamadou Ndi­aye | Panelist

Mr. Ndi­aye is a Senior Project Man­ager in the Path­ways Through Post­sec­ondary Team at Jobs for the Future (JFF), a Boston based non-profit work­ing to improve edu­ca­tion and labor mar­ket out­comes for low-income indi­vid­u­als and fam­i­lies across Amer­ica. Mr. Ndi­aye works with dis­tricts, com­mu­nity col­leges, and community-based orga­ni­za­tions across the coun­try to doc­u­ment, cod­ify, and scale-up Back on Track Through Col­lege path­ways, designed to increase the qual­ity and quan­tity of path­ways to post­sec­ondary cre­den­tial attain­ment and family-sustaining jobs for youth aged 16–24 who are strug­gling in school or who have left school with­out a cre­den­tial. Over the past three years, Mr. Ndi­aye has led JFF’s work in part­ner­ship with Youth­Build USA, the National Youth Employ­ment Coali­tion, the Corps Net­work to launch the Post­sec­ondary Suc­cess Ini­tia­tive designed to help 34 youth-serving pro­grams around the coun­try imple­ment a Back on Track Through Col­lege model. Mr. Ndi­aye has more than 15 years of expe­ri­ence in pro­gram design, coach­ing, man­age­ment, eval­u­a­tion and sys­tems devel­op­ment with a spe­cial focus on col­lege access and com­ple­tion for low-income youth and adults. Mr. Ndi­aye is also a co-founder and board vice chair of X-Cel Adult Edu­ca­tion Ser­vices Inc, a Boston-based non­profit that helps adults enroll and suc­ceed in col­lege. Mr. Ndi­aye is a native of Sene­gal, West Africa. He holds a Bachelor’s Degree in US Stud­ies from Uni­ver­sitè Cheikh Anta Diop in Dakar, a Bachelor’s of Sci­ence in busi­ness man­age­ment from North­east­ern Uni­ver­sity and a Master’s of Edu­ca­tion from the Uni­ver­sity of Mass­a­chu­setts in Boston.

Francesco Galtieri | Panelist

Francesco Galtieri (1977) holds a Ph.D. in African Stud­ies from the Uni­ver­sity of Naples “L’Orientale”. He is Deputy Chief of the Peace Divi­sion, at UN Vol­un­teers (UNV) head­quar­ters in Bonn, man­ag­ing four Port­fo­lios (with 3000 UN Vol­un­teers across 21 coun­tries) pro­mot­ing civic engage­ment in post-conflict coun­tries, through the sup­port to the work of the UN sys­tem. He also serves as UN pol­icy advi­sor in the area of cit­i­zens’ par­tic­i­pa­tion in peace­build­ing. Prior to this posi­tion, Francesco was Port­fo­lio Man­ager for UNV cov­er­ing Sudan, South Sudan, Chad, Burundi and Cen­tral African Repub­lic and served as pol­icy advi­sor in the area of frag­ile States’ capac­ity devel­op­ment. From 2006 to 2010, he was Pol­icy Advi­sor on the reform of UN devel­op­ment oper­a­tions in New York, focus­ing on Europe and the CIS and Africa. From 2002–2006 Francesco served in UNDP Burk­ina Faso, as Pro­gramme Offi­cer for UNV and Local Gov­er­nance and as Head of the UN Res­i­dent Coordinator’s Office. Prior he was Attaché to the Diplo­matic Advi­sor of the Ital­ian Min­is­ter of Defense. He is teach­ing assis­tant of Inter­na­tional law at Uni­ver­sity of Tri­este and vis­it­ing lec­turer at Uni­ver­sity of Naples “L’Orientale”. Author of sev­eral pub­li­ca­tions on inter­na­tional affairs, Francesco is Mem­ber of the Transat­lantic Net­work 2020 of the British Coun­cil, Fel­low of the Royal Soci­ety for the encour­age­ment of Arts (RSA) and sits in the Board of Plain­Ink, a social enter­prise that — through sto­ry­telling — helps peo­ple gain new skills and engages com­mu­ni­ties in find­ing their own solu­tions to fight against poverty.

Panel 3 — Chal­lenges and Oppor­tu­ni­ties to Advance Health and Devel­op­ment at the Grassroots


Improv­ing the health and well-being of peo­ple liv­ing in under­served com­mu­ni­ties is inte­gral to pro­mot­ing the end of devel­op­ment. In this panel ses­sion, guest speak­ers will dis­cuss chal­lenges and oppor­tu­ni­ties in devel­op­ing inno­v­a­tive grass­roots health ini­tia­tives and pro­mot­ing civic engage­ment and com­mu­nity devel­op­ment. Pan­elists will share insights on mar­ket­ing and advanc­ing health at the grass­roots level in the face of lim­ited resources, con­flict, cri­sis, and other dif­fi­cult local cir­cum­stances. They will dis­cuss work on devel­op­ing and scal­ing suc­cess­ful health inter­ven­tions that tar­get improv­ing repro­duc­tive, mater­nal, neona­tal, and child health; com­bat­ing com­mu­ni­ca­ble and non-communicable dis­eases; and enhanc­ing peo­ples’ qual­ity of life and own­er­ship over health at the local level.

Mark Arnoldy | Panelist

Mark Arnoldy is the Exec­u­tive Direc­tor of Nyaya Health, an orga­ni­za­tion that is real­iz­ing the right to health by deliv­er­ing trans­par­ent, data-driven health care for Nepal’s rural poor. After nearly dying on his first trip to Nepal from a lack of access to health care fol­low­ing a severe aller­gic reac­tion, Mark was afforded a rare glimpse of empa­thy with the mil­lions of Nepalis with­out care. That inci­dent was the rea­son he com­mit­ted him­self to a life of build­ing health sys­tems for the world’s poor­est. Prior to Nyaya Health, Mark founded Nepal­NU­Tri­tion to treat mal­nour­ished chil­dren and advised the cre­ation of two blended value busi­nesses in the United States that fund nutri­tion pro­grams in Nepal. He grad­u­ated Summa Cum Laude from the Uni­ver­sity of Col­orado at Boul­der, com­pleted Harvard’s Global Health Effec­tive­ness Pro­gram, and was a Ful­bright Scholar to Nepal. Mark is a Cordes Fel­low, Bluhm/Helfand Social Inno­va­tion Fel­low, and Aspen Ideas Fes­ti­val Scholar. In addi­tion to his nut allergy, Mark is aller­gic to small think­ing. Learn more about the think­ing that makes up Nyaya Health’s Cul­tural DNA at– us/.

Ashok Alexan­der | Panelist

Ashok led the Bill & Melinda Gates Foun­da­tion’ India office from its incep­tion in 2003 until 2012. He cre­ated Ava­han, the Gates Foundation’s India AIDS pre­ven­tion pro­gram. Ava­han quickly became the largest ever pri­vate HIV pre­ven­tion pro­gram and a global model of scal­ing up health deliv­ery.

Ashok’s team took the busi­ness model behind Ava­han to mater­nal and child health and infec­tious dis­eases in Bihar and UP.

Over a decade, Ashok led the growth and expan­sion of the Gates Foundation’s first coun­try office. The grants he over­saw amounted to over $1 bil­lion across India.

Prior to the foun­da­tion, he was a Direc­tor in McK­in­sey. He has a post-graduate degree from the Delhi School of Eco­nom­ics, and an MBA from the Indian Insti­tute of Man­age­ment in Ahmed­abad. He serves as a board member/trustee of the Pub­lic Health Foun­da­tion of India, CARE India, and the America-India Foun­da­tion.

Cur­rently, Ashok is engaged in begin­ning Antara, a non-profit ded­i­cated to health deliv­ery at scale.

Joia Mukher­jee | Panelist

Joia Mukher­jee, MD, MPH, is Asso­ciate Pro­fes­sor for the Divi­sion of Global Health Equity at Brigham and Women’s Hos­pi­tal and the Depart­ment of Global Health and Social Med­i­cine at Har­vard Med­ical School. Dr. Mukher­jee is a grad­u­ate of the Uni­ver­sity of Min­nesota Med­ical School, trained in Inter­nal Med­i­cine, Pedi­atrics and Infec­tious Dis­ease at the Mass­a­chu­setts Gen­eral Hos­pi­tal, and received a Mas­ter in Pub­lic Health degree from Har­vard School of Pub­lic Health.

Since 2000, she has served as Chief Med­ical Offi­cer for Part­ners In Health (PIH), a non­profit focused on reduc­ing global health dis­par­i­ties by strength­en­ing health sys­tems through pub­lic sec­tor sup­port and community-based pro­grams. She pro­vides strate­gic guid­ance on the imple­men­ta­tion of clin­i­cal pro­grams at PIH’s sites in Haiti, Rwanda, Malawi, Lesotho, Peru, Mex­ico and Rus­sia and has served as an expert con­sul­tant for the World Health Orga­ni­za­tion and Min­istries of Health on of HIV, TB, health sys­tems strength­en­ing and health work force development.

Mar­cia Met­calfe | Panelist

Mar­cia Met­calfe, Direc­tor, Micro­fi­nance and Health, has worked with Free­dom from Hunger since 2006 to design and demon­strate new approaches to inte­grate health and micro­fi­nance to improve access to health ser­vices and finan­cial resiliency of the chron­i­cally hun­gry poor. In this capac­ity, she has con­tributed to over­all strat­egy, prod­uct inno­va­tion, man­age­ment, and eval­u­a­tion of Free­dom from Hunger’s work with finan­cial ser­vices providers located in India, Latin Amer­ica, South­east Asia, and West Africa. She cur­rently pro­vides strate­gic and tech­ni­cal sup­port to Free­dom from Hunger’s inter­na­tional and locally based staff to pro­vide linked health and micro­fi­nance ser­vices that reach over two mil­lion clients and their fam­i­lies. She has authored and co-authored numer­ous research reports and pub­li­ca­tions on the emerg­ing field of linked health and finan­cial ser­vices. Prior to her work with Free­dom from Hunger, Ms. Met­calfe has served in senior lead­er­ship posi­tions in non-profit health deliv­ery and financ­ing sys­tems, large health insur­ance com­pa­nies in the United States, and as an aca­d­e­mic lec­turer on non-profit man­age­ment. Ms. Met­calfe has an under­grad­u­ate degree in Eco­nom­ics and a Mas­ters in Health Admin­is­tra­tion from the School of Pub­lic Health, Uni­ver­sity of Michigan