Track II: Building Empowered and Sustainable Communities
Panel 8: Silent crisis: Addressing youth unemployment
The global economic crisis and slow recovery has left millions without a job. Youth have been the hardest hit. In 2013, 12.6% or 73 million young people around the world faced difficulty transitioning from school to the job market. Unemployment has a ‘scarring effect’ on youth: erosion of skills, reduced wages, and weakened future labor force participation; effects may persist for as long as ten years. It also burdens the government from increased spending on social benefits, loss in human capital, and dampened growth prospects. The Arab Spring showed that unemployment may even exacerbate social exclusion, crime, and instability. Given that we now have the largest generation of youth in history, how should we move forward? This panel will examine innovative and collaborative ways in which various stakeholders can address the issue of youth unemployment.
Director: Kay Kim
VIDUR CHOPRA (MODERATOR) is a doctoral student at the Harvard Graduate School of Education where his research is situated at the intersections of conflict, education and youth engagement. Much of his professional experience has focused on education in the developing world. He has rich field experience in India and has worked on education related issues in refugee camps at the Somali-Ethiopian border and in Burundi. He has also had shorter stints in Bhutan, Syria and the U.S., including experience at UNICEF’s headquarters in New York. He’s also a dragon boat racing enthusiast and an avid traveler.
WILLIAM S. REESE is the President and CEO of the International Youth Foundation. Previously, he was the President and CEO of Partners of the Americas. He also served with the Peace Corps, first as a volunteer in Salvador, then as director of Brazil operations, and as deputy director of the Latin American and Caribbean region. He is a board member of several organizations including The Prince’s Youth Business International, InterAction and Alcatel-Lucent Foundation. Mr. Reese received his BA in Political Science from Stanford University and is a graduate of the Business School’s Executive Program.
POONAM AHLUWALIA has developed two innovative programs that shaped the global youth employment agenda: YES Campaign and YouthTrade. Her 14 years of tireless work at YES Campaign helped place youth employment on the global agenda. Through her innovative low-touch, high impact approach to development, over 400 projects worldwide have been initiated and implemented by youth. YouthTrade is an innovative architecture that certifies mission-driven youth entrepreneur’s businesses and provides access to markets, while increasing product demand. YouthTrade products can be found at Whole Foods Market and Nordstrom. Ahluwalia sits on the World Economic Forum’s Global Agenda Council for Youth Unemployment.
NAMITA DATTA is a Senior Results Management Specialist in IFC’s Department of Development Impact and is a core member of the IFC Jobs Team that has recently launched a global program called Lets Work– a global partnership to create better private sector jobs. She has led a study that estimated employment effects of infrastructure projects, developing a methodological approach that is now being used by other IFIs and development organizations. She holds various advisory positions within the World Bank and has a PhD from Cornell University, an MIA from Colombia University, and an MBA from the Indian Institute of Management.
SABEEN MALIK is a Senior Policy Advisor in the Office of Global Youth Issues at the US Department of State. Sabeen has worked on several White House initiatives including the Global Entrepreneurship Summit and The President’s Advisory Council on Global Entrepreneurship. She has also traveled in the Middle East, South Asia, Europe, and East Asia looking at economic issues with the next generation of leaders on innovation in the new knowledge economy. Sabeen has spoken widely on wide ranging topics and has a unique perspective on the role economic development and market innovation issues will play in emerging economies.
Panel 9:The promise of women’s economic empowerment
This panel will focus on understanding the importance of women’s economic empowerment, elucidating the main barriers to economic independence, and discussing current and potential mechanisms to making economic empowerment a greater reality for women across the globe. A diverse panel of leaders in the sector will explore questions such as: Why does women’s economic empowerment impact not just women but societies at large? What are the consequences when women do not have economic independence? To what extent is this a political problem, a cultural problem, or a different systemic issue? And what can be done for women’s economic empowerment now, and into the future?
Directors: Luba Guzei and Delphine O
KALPANA JAIN (Moderator), Senior Journalist, Times of India, is a senior journalist and a former Nieman Fellow, whose reporting at The Times of India played a significant role in elevating public health as an important topic of news coverage. She is currently based at Harvard University, where she has been working with the faculty in identifying and writing case-based teaching material, writing policy papers and assisting with teaching. She was a Mason Fellow at Harvard Kennedy School where she completed a mid career Masters in Public Administration. In 2010, she was awarded William A. Starr fellowship for innovative thinking in journalism and John Kenneth Galbraith Fellowship for outstanding academic and professional achievements at Harvard. A case study researched and written by her, on a woman’s courageous leadership in ending decades’ old practice of debt-bondage in a rural area of India, was featured on Harvard Kennedy School’s webpage as an example of outstanding work.
DOROTHY TUMA, Director of DMT Consultants ltd., has spent the last spent the last ten years on three initiatives: increasing the income earning capacity of incredibly resilient, yet highly disadvantaged women in rural Uganda; running a consulting practice that helps micro, small and medium sized enterprises in East and Southern Africa identify and pursue growth strategies; and lastly, volunteering for leadership roles with various associations that support women’s entrepreneurship in East Africa. She is the immediate past Chairperson of Uganda Women Entrepreneurs Association Ltd. (UWEAL) and current Chairperson of the recently launched East African Women in Business Platform.She has an MBA from the Anderson School, University of California Los Angeles, and is currently a Mason Fellow in the Harvard Kennedy School’s Mid-Career Masters in Public Administration Program.
IRFAN ALAM is a cross-sectoral entrepreneur, having started both NGOs as well as a stock trade analysis and portfolio management firm. He founded his first enterprise in India at the age of thirteen, and after college won the show Business Baazigar with his innovative business ideas. Soon after he started SammaaN, proving the sector could have a robust business model while also systematically empowering rickshaw pullers and their families throughout india. He also founded SammaaN Women’s Association, which empowers women by providing providing education, training and employment opportunities for women. Irfan has been globally recognized as an expert on social entrepreneurship, and is an Ashoka, Ford and TED fellow, as well as a CNBC Young Turk and CNN Young Indian Leader award winner. Currently Irfan is a Mason MPA candidate at Harvard Kennedy School on Fulbright scholarship and promoting women and youth entrepreneurship in India.
PATRICIA RAMSAY is a Jamaican philanthropist and founding president of International Women’s Forum Jamaica. She has spearheaded and started distinctive programmes, including the Women’s Leadership Initiative (WLI-Committee of United Way) of which she is chair emeritus. Pat is known for her contribution in the arts, having recently forged a collaboration with the University of Technology, and the Museum of Modern Art, which resulted in the staging of the Caribbean Modernist Architecture conference, the first of its kind in the English-, Dutch-, French– and Spanish-speaking Caribbean. She has served as cultural director of the University of Technology, chair of the Arts Foundation at the Edna Manley College of the Visual and Performing Arts, board member of the National Gallery, United Way and the CHASE Fund. She is currently an Advanced Leadership Fellow at the Harvard Kennedy School’s Mid-Career Masters in Public Administration Program.
Panel 10: Development goes local: Is this the way forward?
Development practice is becoming increasingly localized as we move from a top-down to bottom-up approach. But what does this actually mean? Localizing development has been defined and practiced in various ways with the most popular approaches being community participation, carefully considering the local context, and increased social accountability and decentralized governance. However, there is an ongoing debate about their applicability and relative success. This panel will explore the emergence and ongoing relevance of these approaches and how they have been impacted by the role of the state, non-state actors, communities, institutions and the private sector.
Director: Gibrill Jaloh
RYANN MANNING (MODERATOR) is a PhD candidate in Organizational Behavior at Harvard University, and holds a Master in Public Policy from the Harvard Kennedy School. She has more than decade of experience in global health and international development, and has worked for the World Bank, the Council on Foreign Relations, and various NGOs. She is a founding Director of the Welbodi Partnership, which supports pediatric healthcare in Sierra Leone. Her primary empirical research is on public sector nurses in West Africa and their interactions with patients and families. She has also studied identity and institutional change; culture and global collaboration; and the international development blogosphere.
MICHAEL WOOLCOCK is Lead Social Development Specialist in the World Bank’s Development Research Group, where he was worked since 1998. For nine years during this period he has also taught part-time at Harvard Kennedy School. Other professional appointments have included being the Von Hugel Visiting Fellow at St Edmunds College, Cambridge University, and (during a period of external service leave from the Bank in 2007–2009) the founding Research Director of the Brooks World Poverty Institute at the University of Manchester. An Australian national, Michael is a co-founder of the World Bank’s ‘Justice for the Poor’ program, which examines the interface between non-state and state-based legal systems, and the Kennedy School’s ‘Building State Capability’ program, which seeks to enhance the capability of public sector organizations to implement their core functions. He had published extensively in fields ranging from institutional history, social relations and legal pluralism to economic growth, program evaluation and popular culture. His two most recent co-edited books are ‘Legal Pluralism and Development: Conversations Between Scholars and Practitioners’ (Cambridge University Press 2012) and ‘Popular Representations of Development: Insights from Novels, Films, Television and Social Media’ (Routledge 2014).
SARAH ZOEN is a Senior Advisor with Oxfam America’s Private Sector Department based in Boston, MA. Her primary focus is to identify and promote programmatic linkages in Oxfam’s target regions where the private sector and markets can be leveraged by poor communities for social change. In addition, she leads the gender equality index that scores companies on policies and practices for Oxfam’s Behind the Brands Campaign and manages the Community Based Human Rights Assessment Initiative. Previously, Sarah worked for several years with Oxfam’s domestic program as an advocate for farmworker and immigrant rights in the US Southeast. In that role, she collaborated with Oxfam partner, the Farm Labor Organizing Committee, to pilot a human rights impact assessment of farmworker rights in North Carolina tobacco fields. Sarah served with the Peace Corps in Côte d’Ivoire and conducted thesis research in Ecuador working for a Kichwa cocoa cooperative of smallholder farmers in the Amazon. She holds Masters Degrees in Education and in Sustainable International Development.
FRANCIS GATARE is the Former Principal Private Secretary to the President of Rwanda. He was the Chief Economist and Deputy Head of the Strategy and Policy Unit in the President’s Office. He has also served as the Principal Deputy CEO of Rwanda Development Board (RBD). He is currently the Personal Representative of President Kagame to the New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD) Steering Committee.
CAREY JOHNSON is a Senior Project Officer at Management Sciences for Health headquartered in Medford, Massachusetts, where he provides oversight and backstopping support for three USAID-funded projects strengthening leadership and management capacity in Kenya. Before joining MSH in 2011, he served as the Project Manager for International Research at The Fenway Institute in Boston, coordinating and conducting HIV prevention research among key populations in India, South Africa and Vietnam. He has more than 17 years’ experience in community-based public health programs and research in both the U.S. and internationally, where his time as a Peace Corps volunteer in Cameroon from 2003 to 2005 solidified his passion for global health. He has a Master’s degree in health and social behavior from the Harvard School of Public Health, and a Bachelor’s degree in biology from the University of Alabama.
Panel 11: Open data and technology: Re-envisioning civic participation
This panel explores the opportunities and challenges in using open data and open technologies to disrupt old models of governance, increase accountability, and enable greater citizen engagement in the development process. With calls for a post-2015 data-revolution where government data is “open by default”, we will explore how open data can drive change. But data alone is rarely enough. Groups like MySociety and Ciudadano Inteligente have been building civic apps to enable citizens to interact with government, and Code 4 All projects have been embedding technologists inside government and the media to support data-driven journalism and innovation in public services. How can these and other approaches be harnessed in international development? How will these platforms enable community-driven development? What are the current challenges in using open data and technology?
Directors: Irene Chung and Reshma Ramachandran
TIM DAVIES (MODERATOR) is a Fellow at the Berkman Center, a PhD Candidate in the Web Science Doctoral Training Centre at the University of Southampton, and a member of the open data team at the World Wide Web Foundation where he coordinates the Open Data Research Network, and the Exploring the Emerging Impacts of Open Data in Developing Countries project. He blogs at www.timdavies.org.uk and tweets as @timdavies.
MATTHEW SMITH works at Canada’s International Development Research Centre (IDRC) where he oversees research on how information networks can be used to promote open, inclusive and rights based information societies in the south. Before joining IDRC in 2008, Smith completed postgraduate research on the interaction between technology and society, in particular the impact of e-government systems on citizens’ trust in the government Chile. Smith is also a co-editor of the 2013 MIT Press publication, Open Development: Networked Innovations in International Development. Smith holds a PhD in information systems and an MSc in development studies from the London School of Economics and Political Science (England), as well as an MSc in artificial intelligence from the University of Edinburgh (Scotland).
PAUL LENZ is the Head of Finance and International Projects for mySociety. He joined the organisation in January 2011 having worked in the commercial sector for 15 years, the last of 5 of which were with BT Group PLC where he held a range of management and marketing positions. Paul’s role in mySociety covers both overall operational management, and a specific focus on working with partner groups. This has included managing the re-launch of Mzalendo.com in Kenya and working with Hutspace to launch Odekro.org in Ghana, and most recently working with the Parliamentary Monitoring Group in South Africa on the launch of pa.org.za. Paul has an MA in Biological Sciences from the University of Oxford and an Advanced Post-Graduate Diploma in Environmental Decision Making from the Open University, UK.
LYNN FINE is the International Programs Manager at Code for America, a non-profit organization that aims to leverage technology to improve local government service delivery and foster civic engagement. After graduating Summa Cum Laude and Phi Beta Kappa from UCLA with a major in International Development, she went on to work in six countries in Latin America, including five years in Argentina, and then in India, resolving policy challenges and managing youth leadership projects. She received a Master in Public Policy from the Harvard Kennedy School, where she was selected as a Harvard Leadership Institute Fellow. Prior to joining Code for America, Lynn worked as an advisor to the city of Porto Alegre in Brazil on the implementation of their open data program, culminating in the passage of a city-wide open data policy earlier this year.
Panel 12: Internal migrants: The forgotten billion
Nearly one billion people have migrated from rural to urban areas in developing countries, particularly China and India. These migrants have limited political representation, lack social safety nets, and live in dismal conditions in crowded slums. Currently, governments provide limited recognition or services to these migrants, companies see them as simply a source of cheap labor, and existing urban residents see them as a threat to their employment and resources. Regardless, migration continues and megacities are reaching their limits. This panel will explore whether governments should provide more services in urban areas or develop mid-size cities and how they can better support migrant communities.
Director: Jason Zhang
IZA YUE DING (MODERATOR) is a Ph.D. candidate in the Department of Government at Harvard University. Her research focuses on local environmental governance and public opinion in China. She is also a teaching fellow at the Department of Government, where she has taught for courses on Chinese political economy, doing business in China and international relations. She received her B.A. in 2009 from the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor, where she double-majored in political science and Russian and Eastern European Studies. She was a visiting student to Warsaw University in 2006 and 2007, where she majored in politics and economics.
HAMILTON HO is in the Mid-Career MPA program at HKS and originally from Boston. Previously, he spent 6 years in Beijing, China working with migrant children and their families, first as a volunteer and later as Regional Programs Manager with a non-profit organization, INCLUDED (formerly Compassion for Migrant Children). He oversaw new community center launches, as well as the design, development, and evaluation of programs within Beijing’s urban migrant communities, running after school programs, pre-school education and vocational training programs, serving over 1,500 migrant children and parents each semester. INCLUDED has also expanded into Shanghai, Kathmandu and Dhaka.
SOMIK V. LALL is a Lead Economist for Urban Development at the World Bank. He has been a core team member of the World Development Report 2009: Reshaping Economic Geography, Senior Economic Counselor to the Indian Prime Minister’s National Transport Development Policy Committee, and Lead Author of the World Bank’s flagship report on urbanization “Planning, Connecting, and Financing Cities Now”. He currently leads a World Bank program on the Urbanization Review, which provides diagnostic tools and a policy framework for policy makers to manage rapid urbanization and city development. Urbanization Reviews have been completed or are ongoing in over 20 countries, covering over 55 percent of the global urban population. His research and policy interests span urban and spatial economics, rural urban migration, infrastructure development, and public finance, with more than 40 publications featured in peer-reviewed journals, edited volumes, and working papers. Dr. Lall holds a bachelor’s degree in engineering, master’s in city planning, and doctorate in economics and public policy.
ROBERT E.B. LUCAS is Professor of Economics at Boston University. Professor Lucas completed the B.Sc (Econ) and M.Sc (Econ) at London School of Economics and receieved his Ph.D. from M.I.T. His research has included work on internal and international migration, employment and human resources, income distribution and intergenerational inequality, international trade and industry, the environment, and sharecropping. Professor Lucas has served as Chief Technical Adviser to the Malaysia Human Resource Department Program, Director of Undergraduate Studies and the MA program in Economics at Boston University, Research Affiliate at the MIT Center for International Studies and consultant to a number of international agencies.
DR CHEN JIAXI 陈家喜 is Professor at the Institute of Contemporary Chinese Politics, Shenzhen University, China, and now is Rajavili Fellows at Ash Center, Harvard Kennedy School. He holds a PhD in Political Science from Fudan University, China. Dr Chen’s main research interests include the CCP’s adaptation, private entrepreneurs’ political participation, and local governance in China. He is the author of The Political Impact of Private Entrepreneurs in Reform China (China: Chongqing Press, 2007), Township Election Reform in China(Beijing: People Press,2009)and The Political Change of Shenzhen Special Economic Zone: 1980–2010 (Beijing: Commercial Press, 2010).
Panel 13: Arts: A powerful but underexplored tool for development
Not only are the arts inherently rewarding, they also spark social, political, and even economic change. However, few funding sources or programs focus on using the arts to drive development. Though research is not the only legitimate means for allocating resources, the lack of rigorous data may contribute to the lack of funding for this powerful tool. This panel will feature new findings from a randomized control trial on the impact of music training on at-risk youth. The panel will provide on-the-ground examples of how arts can be used effectively in a development context and explore how novel research methods are used to assess the highly fluid, multi-dimensional, and context-specific nature of arts programs.
Director: Camila Alva
MICHAEL WOOLCOCK (MODERATOR) is a Lecturer in Public Policy, is Lead Social Development Specialist with the World Bank’s Development Research Group in Washington, D.C., where he has worked since 1998. His current research focuses on interactions between customary and state legal systems, conducted as part of the World Bank’s global ‘Justice for the Poor’ program (which he co-founded), strategies for building state capability for implementation and strategies for assessing complex social interventions. His most recent book is Popular Representations of Development: Insights from Novels, Films, Television and Social Media (edited with David Lewis and Dennis Rodgers; Routledge, 2014). An Australian national, he has an M.A. and Ph.D. in sociology from Brown University.
MARGARET MARTIN is a doctor of public health and founder of Harmony Project, a music-based mentoring program that has provided instruments and tuition-free group and private music lessons to thousands of the most vulnerable children in Los Angeles as a means of positive youth development and social inclusion. Harmony Project has garnered two Presidential awards since 2009; affiliated programs have launched across five states. Preliminary findings of her research collaboration with Northwestern University’s Auditory Neuroscience Lab suggest that early music training may remodel children’s developing brains and significantly improve cognitive function in disadvantaged children, especially for language processing and reading.
DORIS SOMMER, Director of the Cultural Agents Initiative at Harvard University, is Ira and Jewell Williams Professor of Romance Languages and Literatures and of African and African American Studies. Her academic and outreach work promotes development through arts and humanities, specifically through “Pre-Texts” in Boston Public Schools, throughout Latin America and beyond. Pre-Texts is an arts-based training program for teachers of literacy, critical thinking, and citizenship. Among her books are Foundational Fictions: The National Romances of Latin America (1991) about novels that helped to consolidate new republics; Proceed with Caution when Engaged by Minority Literature (1999) on a rhetoric of particularism; Bilingual Aesthetics: A New Sentimental Education (2004); and The Work of Art in the World: Civic Agency and Public Humanities (2014). Sommer has enjoyed and is dedicated to developing good public school education. She has a B.A. from New Jersey’s Douglass College for Women, and Ph.D. from Rutgers, The State University.
Panel 14: From access to quality in healthcare
In efforts to meet the MDGs, many developing countries have sharply increased public health expenditure and access to healthcare. But improvements in health outcomes are stagnating – perhaps due to the quality of services provided. Public healthcare is fraught with high rates of absenteeism, misdiagnosis, and mismanagement of treatment and an increasing fraction of the poor are paying for private healthcare, despite the lack of access to insurance. This panel will examine innovative ideas around measuring and improving the quality of health services.
Director: Monisha Ashok
MONISHA ASHOK (MODERATOR) has been deeply engaged with healthcare in developing countries for a number of years. She graduated with a dual degree in Public Health and Economics from the University of California, Berkeley, where she worked on public health projects in Peru and India. After graduation, she spent three years running a national study called “Medical Advice Quality and Availability in Rural India (MAQARI)” in collaboration with the World Bank, Innovations for Poverty Action, and the Center for Policy Research, New Delhi. For this study, she worked closely with Michael Kremer (Professor, Harvard University), Karthik Muralidharan (Assistant Professor, UC San Diego), and Jishnu Das (Economist, World Bank) and conducted research on access and and quality of health services in India. More recently, she did her summer internship with Dr. Agnes Binagwaho, the Minister of Health in Rwanda and helped restructure human resources for health. She is currently pursuing a Master in Public Administration in International Development at the Harvard Kennedy School.
KENNETH LEONARD is an associate professor of economics in the department of Agricultural and Resource Economics at the University of Maryland, specializing in the delivery of health and education to rural populations in Africa. He has lived and worked in several African countries, including Cameroun, Ethiopia, Gabon, Kenya, Tanzania and Malawi. His work has highlighted the important roles played by both traditional healers and nongovernmental organizations in the delivery of health care. Recent work focuses on the supply of health care services in rural Tanzania and examines the behavior of households in response to the quality of care that is available to them. In addition, he has been studying the know-do gap with clinicians in Tanzania and the role of intrinsic motivation in closing this gap.
DR. ASHER HASAN is the Founder and Chief Executive Officer of Naya Jeevan (‘new life’ in Urdu/Hindi; http://www.njfk.org), a hybrid social enterprise dedicated to providing low-income families in the emerging world with affordable access to high quality, healthcare. Naya Jeevan’s operations are currently focused on Pakistan with plans to replicate this model in India, Philippines, Mexico and other emerging markets. Asher was selected to join the World Economic Forum Global Agenda Council for Social Innovation for 2012–2014. He is a 2011 World Economic Forum/Schwab Foundation Asian Social Entrepreneur of the Year, a 2013 Synergos Senior Fellow, a 2009 TED fellow, a 2011 Ashoka US fellow, a Draper Richards Social Entrepreneur Fellow for 2009–2011, and an invited member of the Clinton Global Initiative for 2009 and 2010.
RANU DHILLON works on the design and implementation of scalable community-based primary health systems in low and middle-income countries. Based in the Division of Global Health Equity at Brigham and Women’s Hospital, he is a Senior Health Advisor with the Earth Institute at Columbia University, an associate Faculty Member of Ariadne Labs, and teacher at Harvard Medical School and Columbia’s School of International and Public Affairs. Dr. Dhillon works on building primary and community-based approaches for enhancing population health and improving the performance of national health systems at scale. In Rwanda, Dr. Dhillon led the establishment of a comprehensive primary care system for 25,000 people. He has advised national governments in Liberia, Nigeria, and India on building effective heathcare delivery at scale through the strengthening of government health systems and policy reform. With the Office of the Presidency in Nigeria, he helped create and execute a program that guides districts on health strategy and allocates additional funding for implementation. Dr. Dhillon also anchored a collaboration with the Nigerian government to create a national community health worker program that is now being scaled up nationally. In India, he works with state governments to improve the delivery of primary care and maternal and child health interventions through the public healthcare system. Dr. Dhillon sits on the International Advisory Panel to the National Rural Health Mission in India, the Ministerial Working Group for Ministers of Health from Nigeria, India, China, Ethiopia and Kenya, Partners in Health’s Community Health Worker Taskforce, and the Board of Directors for Spark MicroGrants. He has contributed to the Harvard Global Health Delivery Project and serves on expert panels with the WHO and UNICEF. He was named a Fellow of the Royal Society of Arts (UK) in 2014. Dr. Dhillon earned his BS and MD from the combined six-year accelerated program at Penn State University and Jefferson Medical College and is a graduate of the Hiatt Residency for Global Health Equity and Internal Medicine at Brighan and Women’s Hospital and Harvard Medical School.